Category Archives: Health

What do we do in cases of earthquake or earthquake?

In regions prone to seismic movements, the population must be prevented to act quickly and calmly before, during and after an earthquake.

Before an earthquake.
1. Know and locate the general keys for gas, electricity and running water.
2. Put the telephone numbers of firefighters, hospitals and health centers in visible places to ask for help quickly.
3. Patients with special treatments must have medicines in sufficient doses for several days.
4.Poss reserves of gas cylinders, fuels, candles, lamps, flashlights, matches or matches, radio batteries, spare batteries wrapped in plastic inside the refrigerator.

During the earthquake.
1. First of all, keep calm.
2. If we are outside of a building, move away from it and areas where there are overhead cables; stay in a place free of landslides or breakage of glass, until the shaking ends. Do not run between walls.
3. If you surprise us by car, stop and stay there until the tremor ends.
4. If our house did not suffer damages, we must remain in it and cut the entrances of electric power and gas.

After the earthquake
1. Keep us informed through the radio, to comply with the orders of the competent authority.
2. Do not pay attention to unofficial rumors.
3. If we smell gas, we need help to the technical service and do not enter the place until the problem has been solved.
4.Do not use the telephone, except in case of emergency.
5. Stay out of damaged buildings.
6. If we are injured, try to protect them from the sun, rain and wind. Loosen your clothes, wrap them and put them in a comfortable position.
7. If neither we nor our family group suffer injuries, we collaborate with those who need help. Let’s be supportive.

Help-memory for emergencies.
 The first action of every person who attends another who has suffered an accident is to discover what has happened, but without endangering the patient.
 The situations that require attention without delay are respiratory difficulties, hemorrhages of arteries and veins, severe burns, states of unconsciousness and shock, intoxications with loss of consciousness, heart attacks.
 If the evaluation indicates that the person requiring urgent attention, the best action is to call an ambulance by telephone, since the doctors are trained to quickly evaluate the conditions of a sick or injured person and perform the necessary operations to save a life.
 When the paramedics are called, specify the location of the call, the exact location of the accident and the number of the person needing medical attention (as in a traffic accident, an explosion); Then, describe clearly the type of accident and the symptoms that the patient or patients present.
 Certain accidents require the help of firefighters, such as fires, the collapse of structures, etc.
 It is convenient to have the telephone numbers of the police, firemen and emergency medical assistance on hand. Otherwise, the number to the neighbors or the number enabled for information may be required.
In every emergency, it is convenient for a person to stay with the patient all the time to transmit calmness or help them to alleviate their situation,

Anaphylactic shock

There are people who are hypersensitive to bites or stings. In these cases, a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylactic shock may occur.

In addition to the symptoms already mentioned (pressure acide, dyspnea, pallor, rapid pulse, cold sweat, etc.), it is possible that generalized edema or swelling and narrowing of the airways may occur, causing alterations in breathing and even suffocation. This requires urgent medical attention and the supply of specific medications.

Anaphylactic shock can also be caused by drugs (such as penicillin or other antibiotics) certain foods (such as citrus, onion, tomato, chocolate, strawberry, banana, etc.), insect bites (such as wasps and bees), spider bites and ants, dust, animal hairs and pollen.

In cases of anaphylactic shock, injectable antihistamines or serum are used to rapidly lower the edema.

Before the appearance of mild symptoms of shock you have to go to the doctor, do not expect them to get worse. Always assess the general condition of the patient.

See if you have hemorrhages, wounds or burns. If we consider that it presents a fracture in the neck, it is not convenient to move it. If your state of unconsciousness continues, call the doctor urgently.

Severe burns.

2.0 and 3.0 degree burns can cause complications. That is why its severity is determined by the extension. In this way. A burn that affects more than 10% of the body’s surface is considered serious. The greater the affected area, the greater the possibility of disorders. For example, the loss of plasma that filters through the walls of the capillaries of the dermis causes a decrease in the volume of blood. Kidney alterations are also caused by the infiltration of toxic substances that are released from burned tissues. When this happens, the victim needs plasma to avoid kidney complications, and a careful medical follow-up.

3.0-degree burns require surgical operations to remove damaged tissues and replace them with skin grafts that correct scars.

For burns that do not require hospitalization, the treatment is based on ointments that contain fatty substances and antibiotics. With the application of these, the infections are protected and the bandages are prevented from adhering to the wounds.

Shock
It is characterized by a sudden drop in blood pressure, by loss of body fluids (such as blood) or a malfunctioning heart.

The situations that can cause a shock are varied: a serious injury (wound, burns), hemorrhages, a generalized infection, electricity shocks, ingestion of medications, sunstroke, etc. The shock can be deadly and requires urgent medical treatment.

Symptom:
 Palidez.
 The lips and nails become a blue-gray color.
 Weak and fast pulse.
 Fast and superficial respiration. Mario, blurred vision.
 Loss of knowledge.

Hypovolemic shock, which is produced by a loss of fluids due to burns, hemorrhages and dehydration, also presents: thirst, anxiety, irritation, chills and tremors.

Ischemic shock, which occurs when blood pressure suddenly drops due to loss of blood or a state of deep anesthesia, has these symptoms: cold, mental confusion and inadequate production of urine.

What do we do?
1. We put the person on his back, on a blanket or smooth surface. We lift your feet so that they are higher than the chest (that is, the heart), used for that pillow or any object that we have at hand. If the person has a spinal injury, or major bleeding in the lower limbs, it is convenient not to move it and to remain horizontal.
2. We loose all tight clothing, especially around the neck, chest and waist.
3. We tilt your head to one side.
4. Keep the affected person warm and calm.
5. If the person is unconscious or has vomiting, place it in the lateral safety position. We observe his pulse and his breathing. If necessary, we apply artificial respiration and cardiac massage.

Unexpected delivery.

 

Normally, the mothers who are going to give birth are taken care of in health centers. However, sometimes the birth surprises them in unexpected places or during the transfer, and they do not have professional attention. This is how circumstantial people with little or no experience become midwives and attend the birth of a baby.

This situation may never be present in the course of our life, but, if we have the luck to help a mother to give birth, it is better that we have some knowledge on the subject.

Symptom:
 Contractions occur in the abdomen every 10 or 15 minutes. Accompanied by abdominal and back pain.
 Almost always breaks the amniotic sac, known as “bag of water.” Usually, this occurs just before delivery, but sometimes it happens several hours before.
 The loss of a small amount of blood accompanies the explosion of the mucus plug that closes the cervix.
 The vagina dilates.
The contractions are increasingly frequent and intense.
 The baby’s head appears.

After 9 months of gestation, the baby is ready to be born. The dilation of the uterus helps the baby to adjust to go outside. The contractions push the baby out of the uterus, into the vagina. First release the head and then the rest of the body.

What do we do?
1. We help the mother to take off her clothes from the waist down.
2. We rest in an isolated place, with the thighs separated and the knees bent.
3. We reassure and try to relax between contraction and contraction (which become more intense).
4. During the contractions the mother will try to push, but we should advise her not to push and to relax between contraction and contraction.
5. While the baby is coming out, we ask the mother not to push and try to pant. We should not manipulate the baby’s head but hold it gently. Nor should we squeeze the mother’s belly.
6. Once the baby’s head comes out, the arms and shoulders come out immediately. Hold it under the arms as if we were directing it towards the mother’s abdomen. We should not pull the cord or force it. If the amniotic sac was not broken, we will have to prick it very carefully and remove its contents from the baby’s head.
The panting consists of a series of very short breaths to the mouth. It is very useful so that the mother does not get out of control while the baby is coming out of the vagina.
7. When the baby is completely outside, we hold it with both hands so that the head is lower than the body. In this way you can dismiss any liquid through your mouth and nose. We can also introduce a finger in the baby’s mouth, to remove secretions.
8.While the umbilical cord looks thick, bluish and has a pulse, we keep the baby at the same level as the mother. If you do not breathe after a minute, cleanse us and inhale your nose and mouth. If necessary, we apply artificial respiration.
9. We wrap the baby and put it on the breast of the mother.
10. Do not cut the cord while you have a pulse, but when it stops beating, it becomes white and thin. We tie a piece of bandage or cloth around the cord, about 10cm from the navel of the baby, and we make another knot about 3 or 5cem from the previous one. Then we cut the piece of cord that is between the two knots.
11. The placenta is expelled between 5 to 20 minutes after delivery and also produces contractions. If it is delayed we can favor its exit by performing a gentle massage on the uterus and pushing towards the pelvis. Never pull the cord to remove it. It is convenient to keep the placenta for the doctor to observe it.
12. Wash the mother with warm water and give her a hot drink. We shelter her and her baby and let her rest until the doctor arrives.
13. If after delivery the mother has a hemorrhage, we raise her legs, put a compress and give a gentle massage under the navel.

Material needed to attend a delivery.
In the event that the delivery takes place in a house and we have time to prepare, it is advisable that we first procure the elements that we are going to use:
 A clean surface for mom. The most advisable is a bed.
 Have boiled water handy to use when cleaning the baby and the baby.
 Sanitary pads or pieces of soft cloth, previously sterilized.
 Sheets or towels to wrap the baby. Clean towels or pieces of cloth will also be placed under the mother’s buttocks, sticking out so that the newborn comes out on them. It will be necessary to walk them if they get dirty by urine or feces of the mother.
 Scissors sterilized with boiled water or alcohol to cut the umbilical cord.
 A rubber bulb with which the secretions from the nose and mouth of the newborn will be aspirated.
 Two straps to tie the umbilical cord before cutting it.

Although the delivery is unforeseen and we have to assist the mother with

Lead Contamination

Lead is a toxic metal for the nervous system. It is found in nature, but also in glazed clay utensils, lead-based paints and varnishes, tobacco smoke, cans and pipes For water with lead solder. It is one of the most used components in the recycling of bacteria, the repair of radiators, refineries, smelters and the manufacture of fuels, paints and varnishes.

People who work with this metal are very exposed to poisoning either by inhalation or skin. Lead poisoning affects practically all organs, but mainly the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, the kidneys and the blood, producing lead poisoning, a disease whose systems are: colic, paralysis of the extremities and anemia.

Children living in areas contaminated with lead show extremely high concentrations of this metal in the blood, which results in loss of appetite, abdominal pain, headache, constipation, excessive sleep, decreased physical activity, agitation and Amenia. Poor nutrition and protein, iron, calcium and zinc deficiencies favor the absorption of lead, most of which is stored in the bones.

During pregnancy, the fetus can be affected by the mother’s blood lead levels, because the metal crosses the placental barrier. This inhibits their growth before and after birth, and affects intellectual development and auditory acuity.

Symptoms due to intoxication with arsenates, phenolated, fluorinated and polysulphide derivatives.

Convulsions.
 Shock and eat.

 

What do we do?

1. We must not induce vomiting if we do not know the substance that caused the poisoning or if it is suspected that it was produced by corrosive substances. Nor should we make the intoxicated person vomit if he develops seizures.
2. In the event that the substance is not corrosive, we cause vomiting by placing two fingers in the throat or by supplying hot water with salt or oil.
3.If the substance is bleach or ammonia we supply a spoonful of lemon or vinegar in water for vomiting and, after doing so, a glass of milk or 4 tablespoons of raw egg. If the poisoning caused by acid, we give two teaspoons of calcium bicarbonate in a glass of water.

In the case of volatile substances such as kerosene or naphtha, we provide 4 or 5 glasses of water.

Symptoms due to poisoning with insecticides, rodenticides, pesticides and herbicides:

Headache.
 Blurred vision.
Nausea and vomiting.
 Abdominal pain.
 diarrhea
Comatio state.

What do we do?

1. If the poisoning occurred through the skin, wash it with plenty of water and soap.
2. If the person stops breathing, we apply mouth-to-mouth breathing.
3. If you ingested or inhaled any of these products, provided the universal antidote, which is prepared with burnt bread, a little milk of magnesia and a whipped egg white all dissolved in water.
4. We urgently call the doctor or consult a specialized center by telephone.

Intoxication by inhalation of gases.

Most gases, due to their volatility and ability to expand, are very dangerous for human life. The factories that employ them must be far away from the urban conglomerates, since poor management or technical failure can cause a leak with consequences even for workers and for the nearby population.

During a fire, the carbon monoxide that results from the combustion of different matter causes suffocation. At home, we must be attentive to the correct operation of gas appliances to avoid accidents.

Symptom:

Headache and nausea.
 The skin becomes red and rashes appear.
 The skin turns blue (cyanosis).
 Poisoning by ether, chloroform, sulfur dioxide or chlorine causes irritation of the skin of the mucosa and eyes. Disorders in sight, hearing and speech occur, the person feels weak and lethargic.
 Seizures and convulsive cough appear.
 Carbon monoxide produces suffocation.
 Hydrogen cyanide causes suffocation of tissues, causing death.
Gases such as iperite, phosgene, trilones and arsines produce alterations in the nervous system. They can reach the coma state.

What do we do?

1.Alejarnos the affected person from the place where the accident occurred, taking all the guards to avoid inhaling the gases (using masks or masks, or simply trying not to take air during the rescue).
2. We take the person to a place with oxygen.
3. Call a health center and we advance that it is a gas poisoning, to bring oxygen.
4. We practice mouth-to-mouth breathing in case you have to wait for the doctor and the person has suffered a respiratory arrest.