A burn can cause serious alterations in the body, especially if it is very extensive and causes loss of water, protein and leaves, we need to live.
The causes of burns are diverse: the liquid direct contact with flames, the spillage of hot liquids (for example, boiling water oil), electricity shocks, corrosive chemicals and sun exposure.
The severity depends on different factors, such as the extension, the depth, the part of the affected body and the time of exposure to the heat source. According to these factors, they are classified as mild or first grade, second grade and third grade.
First degree burns.
They are caused by contact with liquids and very hot objects or by prolonged exposure to sunlight. They damage the most superficial part of the skin. They heal quickly and do not leave scabs or scars.
Redness of the skin, and burning and pain of the affected part.
What do we do?
1. Cool the affected part to relieve pain with cold compresses or ice, or by immersing it directly in water.
2.Apply a moisturizer or calamine lotion.
We put a bandage with sterile gauze to protect the affected surface from dust and friction.
We must remove all rigid objects that are near the affected part, such as rings or bracelets.
When dealing with acid burns, wash with abundant water (directly under the jet) to remove the substance from the skin.
Burns with bleach, caustic soda or ammonia should be treated with water mixed with vinegar or lemon juice.
Second degree burns.
The cells of the epidermis are destroyed, reaching the dermis. From the capillary vessels of this layer abundant fluid flows forming blisters and vesicles.
When they break, they expose red papillae, which produce intense pain when they are pressed.
Formation of blisters and vesicles that when broken exposes the papillae of the dermis, of a strong red color.
Pain in the affected area.
What do we do?
1.Clean the affected part with plenty of water and we take an antiseptic.
2. We apply an ointment indicated for burns and we cover it with sterile gauze so that it does not get infected.
3. Renew the bandage or ointment every 2 or 3 days.
If the affected part is extensive, for example, the hand, the bandage should be loose, since it is impossible to swell.
Prolonged sun exposure without a protector can cause first and second degree burners. In case of sunburn, Vaseline, butter or lidocaine should not be used as they aggravate symptoms and hinder healing.
The gloves are indispensable elements to prevent burn by contact with heat sources or with caustic products. All containers with caustic products must carry labels that clearly specify the product and its dangerousness.
In the home there are elements that we are used to see as harmless, but they can cause burns of different severity, such as the iron or the hot water bag. Both one and the other must be handled with care, especially when there are children nearby.
Third degree burn
When this type of injury occurs, the destruction of the tissues covers all the layers of the skin and in some cases reaches the muscle tissue.
The skin takes a grayish tone.
The affected party is desensitized.
Pressure drop, tachycardia and pallor occur.
State is shocked.
What do we do?
We require urgent medical attention.
In the case of fire burns or direct contact with flames, we should not remove the clothes of the accident victim or cover them with cotton or gauze. Nor should creams be applied.
Whenever possible, we will remove belts, shoes, bracelets, rings, everything that fits the victim’s body.
If the affected part is extensive we cover it with a towel or a clean roast in cold water.
We cover with a blanket because the air, when it comes in contact with the burn, causes pain.
We administer to the victim liquids at regular intervals.
If the burn has been caused by boiling liquids or liquid substances we cut the clothing that covers it unless it is attached to the skin.
In the event that the affected person suffers severe pain, we provide analgesics.
If we must transfer the victim to a health center, we wrap her in a blanket and put her to bed with her feet up.