Accident Prevention


Accidents are apparently fortuitous events, but all have causes and effects. Many can be avoided by adopting some attitudes of self-protection.

Prevention in sport:
Practicing sports, as we saw, allows us to develop our physical abilities and help mental health. But, frequently, a deficient training, the lack of a correct medical examination or the use of inadequate materials are the cause of unwanted accidents. The most frequent are those that occur due to hyperfunction or hyperloading of muscles, ligaments or joints. For example, lesions of the growth cartilages in children and adolescents, tendonitis in the soles of the feet, the heel, etc., fracture of fatigue at the level of the bones of the limbs, and many others.

Other accidents are related to bumps or bad movements, such as sprains, fractures, strains, contractures and dislocations. Some traumatic incidents have later, long-term consequences. On the other hand, there are sports in which important traumas can occur, such as boxing, rugby and football.

How to take care of ourselves?
To avoid disorders when we practice sports or any type of physical exercise, we should take into account some considerations.

 Before starting a sport it is necessary to warm up for 10 or 15 minutes. The heating should be longer in low temperatures.
It is not advisable to finish a physical activity abruptly¸ but you have to do it gradually so that the muscles cool down little by little. This prevents stiffness and sudden drop in blood pressure.
It is important to keep your back aligned.
 When jumping or running. It should fall with the front of the feet, instead of the heels.
 Stretching movements should be performed slowly to avoid shortening of the muscles and possible breakage.
 Always increase the physical effort gradually.
 Pain is a signal sent to us by the body: let’s pay attention to it.

The care of the food.

Food provides us with what we need to live, as long as we know its properties and how often and in what quantity we must include them in our daily diet. Eating is pleasant, nurturing is a preventive task of the first order and does not have to contradict itself with pleasure.

Good nutrition is characterized by the adequate intake of good quality food. It is one that satisfies the organic needs and repairs the plastic and energetic losses of the body.

The food we need:

Much of our health depends on the food we eat. A diet must contain the nutrients that the body requires to live balanced. They are: water, minerals, carbohydrates, they charge to provide energy for the growth, the recovery of the tissues and the regulation of the activities of the body.

Clear guidelines on food:

Dr. Pedro Escudero (1877-1963), Argentine nutritionist doctor, established guidelines for a healthy diet, which are valid today.

Amount: the food must be sufficient to supply the amount of calories we need and maintain the balance of the balance, which is the relationship between what enters and what is lost.

Quality: the diet must be complete. This means that it will contain all the essential substances that we mentioned.

Harmony: different foods must keep a certain proportion between their quantities.

Adequacy: the diet will be sufficient, complete, harmonious and appropriate to each organism, taking into account the age, sex, health status and activity.

Nutrient classes:

Liquids or fats – organic compounds – their function provide energy and participate in the development of cell membranes.

Carbohydrates or carbohydrates – organic compounds – their function provide energy and participate in the development of cell membranes.

Proteins – organic compounds – their function regulates the functions of the organism. They activate growth. They allow the absorption and fixation of mineral substances.

Vitamins – organic compounds – their function intervenes in the formation, growth and repair of tissues. They act as function regulators. They are part of the tissues.
Mineral salts – inorganic compounds – their function regulate metabolic processes.

How is energy measured?

The energy we need to live is measured in calories or kilocalories. Foods have different caloric values, according to the nutrients they contain. Let’s see:
1 gram of carbohydrates: 4 calories.
1 gram of protein: 4 calories.
1 gram of fat: 9 calories.

How many daily calories do we need?

There is no single diet for all people. The food requirements are different according to age, activity and health conditions. What is important is an idea that contains all the essential nutrients and in sufficient quantity.

The daily amount of calories our body needs to stay healthy varies according to different factors.

 Age:

the caloric intake needed in the first years of life is higher than that of adulthood, since in childhood there are caloric requirements for the normal growth and development of the body (bones and muscles do not stop growing) ; as well as to replenish the energy that children spend on physical activity. As for adults, as our age progresses, the composition of the body varies. Thus, although we stay at the same weight, we lose muscle and gain fat; that’s why it’s important to stay active and perform sports, walks and physical exercises.

 Sex:

women need fewer calories than men, since their body composition is different. They have a greater amount of fatty tissue, which requires less energy to be maintained than muscle tissue. In contrast, the man has more muscle mass, with which the calories to maintain it must be increased.

 Activity:

is the main factor that can vary the amount of calories we need daily. If we increase physical activity, our need for calories increases.

 Biological Moment:

the needs of calories increase during pregnancy and lactation. To normally cover the energy requirements of the mother and the baby, the caloric intake should be moderately increased by a total of 84,000 more calories, which will be distributed on a regular basis between the 20th and 30th trimesters of pregnancy. During lactation, the increase in calories will be higher to ensure proper milk production.
 Health Status: Calorie needs increase in certain conditions such as fever, burns, hyperthyroidism, surgery, etc.

Helpful tips:
In addition to choosing our food

What do we do in cases of earthquake or earthquake?

In regions prone to seismic movements, the population must be prevented to act quickly and calmly before, during and after an earthquake.

Before an earthquake.
1. Know and locate the general keys for gas, electricity and running water.
2. Put the telephone numbers of firefighters, hospitals and health centers in visible places to ask for help quickly.
3. Patients with special treatments must have medicines in sufficient doses for several days.
4.Poss reserves of gas cylinders, fuels, candles, lamps, flashlights, matches or matches, radio batteries, spare batteries wrapped in plastic inside the refrigerator.

During the earthquake.
1. First of all, keep calm.
2. If we are outside of a building, move away from it and areas where there are overhead cables; stay in a place free of landslides or breakage of glass, until the shaking ends. Do not run between walls.
3. If you surprise us by car, stop and stay there until the tremor ends.
4. If our house did not suffer damages, we must remain in it and cut the entrances of electric power and gas.

After the earthquake
1. Keep us informed through the radio, to comply with the orders of the competent authority.
2. Do not pay attention to unofficial rumors.
3. If we smell gas, we need help to the technical service and do not enter the place until the problem has been solved.
4.Do not use the telephone, except in case of emergency.
5. Stay out of damaged buildings.
6. If we are injured, try to protect them from the sun, rain and wind. Loosen your clothes, wrap them and put them in a comfortable position.
7. If neither we nor our family group suffer injuries, we collaborate with those who need help. Let’s be supportive.

Help-memory for emergencies.
 The first action of every person who attends another who has suffered an accident is to discover what has happened, but without endangering the patient.
 The situations that require attention without delay are respiratory difficulties, hemorrhages of arteries and veins, severe burns, states of unconsciousness and shock, intoxications with loss of consciousness, heart attacks.
 If the evaluation indicates that the person requiring urgent attention, the best action is to call an ambulance by telephone, since the doctors are trained to quickly evaluate the conditions of a sick or injured person and perform the necessary operations to save a life.
 When the paramedics are called, specify the location of the call, the exact location of the accident and the number of the person needing medical attention (as in a traffic accident, an explosion); Then, describe clearly the type of accident and the symptoms that the patient or patients present.
 Certain accidents require the help of firefighters, such as fires, the collapse of structures, etc.
 It is convenient to have the telephone numbers of the police, firemen and emergency medical assistance on hand. Otherwise, the number to the neighbors or the number enabled for information may be required.
In every emergency, it is convenient for a person to stay with the patient all the time to transmit calmness or help them to alleviate their situation,

Anaphylactic shock

There are people who are hypersensitive to bites or stings. In these cases, a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylactic shock may occur.

In addition to the symptoms already mentioned (pressure acide, dyspnea, pallor, rapid pulse, cold sweat, etc.), it is possible that generalized edema or swelling and narrowing of the airways may occur, causing alterations in breathing and even suffocation. This requires urgent medical attention and the supply of specific medications.

Anaphylactic shock can also be caused by drugs (such as penicillin or other antibiotics) certain foods (such as citrus, onion, tomato, chocolate, strawberry, banana, etc.), insect bites (such as wasps and bees), spider bites and ants, dust, animal hairs and pollen.

In cases of anaphylactic shock, injectable antihistamines or serum are used to rapidly lower the edema.

Before the appearance of mild symptoms of shock you have to go to the doctor, do not expect them to get worse. Always assess the general condition of the patient.

See if you have hemorrhages, wounds or burns. If we consider that it presents a fracture in the neck, it is not convenient to move it. If your state of unconsciousness continues, call the doctor urgently.

Severe burns.

2.0 and 3.0 degree burns can cause complications. That is why its severity is determined by the extension. In this way. A burn that affects more than 10% of the body’s surface is considered serious. The greater the affected area, the greater the possibility of disorders. For example, the loss of plasma that filters through the walls of the capillaries of the dermis causes a decrease in the volume of blood. Kidney alterations are also caused by the infiltration of toxic substances that are released from burned tissues. When this happens, the victim needs plasma to avoid kidney complications, and a careful medical follow-up.

3.0-degree burns require surgical operations to remove damaged tissues and replace them with skin grafts that correct scars.

For burns that do not require hospitalization, the treatment is based on ointments that contain fatty substances and antibiotics. With the application of these, the infections are protected and the bandages are prevented from adhering to the wounds.

It is characterized by a sudden drop in blood pressure, by loss of body fluids (such as blood) or a malfunctioning heart.

The situations that can cause a shock are varied: a serious injury (wound, burns), hemorrhages, a generalized infection, electricity shocks, ingestion of medications, sunstroke, etc. The shock can be deadly and requires urgent medical treatment.

 Palidez.
 The lips and nails become a blue-gray color.
 Weak and fast pulse.
 Fast and superficial respiration. Mario, blurred vision.
 Loss of knowledge.

Hypovolemic shock, which is produced by a loss of fluids due to burns, hemorrhages and dehydration, also presents: thirst, anxiety, irritation, chills and tremors.

Ischemic shock, which occurs when blood pressure suddenly drops due to loss of blood or a state of deep anesthesia, has these symptoms: cold, mental confusion and inadequate production of urine.

What do we do?
1. We put the person on his back, on a blanket or smooth surface. We lift your feet so that they are higher than the chest (that is, the heart), used for that pillow or any object that we have at hand. If the person has a spinal injury, or major bleeding in the lower limbs, it is convenient not to move it and to remain horizontal.
2. We loose all tight clothing, especially around the neck, chest and waist.
3. We tilt your head to one side.
4. Keep the affected person warm and calm.
5. If the person is unconscious or has vomiting, place it in the lateral safety position. We observe his pulse and his breathing. If necessary, we apply artificial respiration and cardiac massage.

Types of Burns and How to Treat Them

A burn can cause serious alterations in the body, especially if it is very extensive and causes loss of water, protein and leaves, we need to live.

The causes of burns are diverse: the liquid direct contact with flames, the spillage of hot liquids (for example, boiling water oil), electricity shocks, corrosive chemicals and sun exposure.

The severity depends on different factors, such as the extension, the depth, the part of the affected body and the time of exposure to the heat source. According to these factors, they are classified as mild or first grade, second grade and third grade.

First degree burns.

They are caused by contact with liquids and very hot objects or by prolonged exposure to sunlight. They damage the most superficial part of the skin. They heal quickly and do not leave scabs or scars.

 Redness of the skin, and burning and pain of the affected part.

What do we do?

1. Cool the affected part to relieve pain with cold compresses or ice, or by immersing it directly in water.
2.Apply a moisturizer or calamine lotion.
We put a bandage with sterile gauze to protect the affected surface from dust and friction.
 We must remove all rigid objects that are near the affected part, such as rings or bracelets.
 When dealing with acid burns, wash with abundant water (directly under the jet) to remove the substance from the skin.
 Burns with bleach, caustic soda or ammonia should be treated with water mixed with vinegar or lemon juice.

Second degree burns.

The cells of the epidermis are destroyed, reaching the dermis. From the capillary vessels of this layer abundant fluid flows forming blisters and vesicles.

When they break, they expose red papillae, which produce intense pain when they are pressed.


 Formation of blisters and vesicles that when broken exposes the papillae of the dermis, of a strong red color.
 Pain in the affected area.

What do we do?

1.Clean the affected part with plenty of water and we take an antiseptic.
2. We apply an ointment indicated for burns and we cover it with sterile gauze so that it does not get infected.
3. Renew the bandage or ointment every 2 or 3 days.
 If the affected part is extensive, for example, the hand, the bandage should be loose, since it is impossible to swell.

Prolonged sun exposure without a protector can cause first and second degree burners. In case of sunburn, Vaseline, butter or lidocaine should not be used as they aggravate symptoms and hinder healing.

The gloves are indispensable elements to prevent burn by contact with heat sources or with caustic products. All containers with caustic products must carry labels that clearly specify the product and its dangerousness.

In the home there are elements that we are used to see as harmless, but they can cause burns of different severity, such as the iron or the hot water bag. Both one and the other must be handled with care, especially when there are children nearby.

Third degree burn

When this type of injury occurs, the destruction of the tissues covers all the layers of the skin and in some cases reaches the muscle tissue.

 Inserts appear.
 Intense pain.
 The skin takes a grayish tone.
 The affected party is desensitized.
 Pressure drop, tachycardia and pallor occur.
 State is shocked.

What do we do?
 We require urgent medical attention.
 In the case of fire burns or direct contact with flames, we should not remove the clothes of the accident victim or cover them with cotton or gauze. Nor should creams be applied.
 Whenever possible, we will remove belts, shoes, bracelets, rings, everything that fits the victim’s body.
 If the affected part is extensive we cover it with a towel or a clean roast in cold water.
We cover with a blanket because the air, when it comes in contact with the burn, causes pain.
 We administer to the victim liquids at regular intervals.
 If the burn has been caused by boiling liquids or liquid substances we cut the clothing that covers it unless it is attached to the skin.
 In the event that the affected person suffers severe pain, we provide analgesics.
 If we must transfer the victim to a health center, we wrap her in a blanket and put her to bed with her feet up.

Unexpected delivery.


Normally, the mothers who are going to give birth are taken care of in health centers. However, sometimes the birth surprises them in unexpected places or during the transfer, and they do not have professional attention. This is how circumstantial people with little or no experience become midwives and attend the birth of a baby.

This situation may never be present in the course of our life, but, if we have the luck to help a mother to give birth, it is better that we have some knowledge on the subject.

 Contractions occur in the abdomen every 10 or 15 minutes. Accompanied by abdominal and back pain.
 Almost always breaks the amniotic sac, known as “bag of water.” Usually, this occurs just before delivery, but sometimes it happens several hours before.
 The loss of a small amount of blood accompanies the explosion of the mucus plug that closes the cervix.
 The vagina dilates.
The contractions are increasingly frequent and intense.
 The baby’s head appears.

After 9 months of gestation, the baby is ready to be born. The dilation of the uterus helps the baby to adjust to go outside. The contractions push the baby out of the uterus, into the vagina. First release the head and then the rest of the body.

What do we do?
1. We help the mother to take off her clothes from the waist down.
2. We rest in an isolated place, with the thighs separated and the knees bent.
3. We reassure and try to relax between contraction and contraction (which become more intense).
4. During the contractions the mother will try to push, but we should advise her not to push and to relax between contraction and contraction.
5. While the baby is coming out, we ask the mother not to push and try to pant. We should not manipulate the baby’s head but hold it gently. Nor should we squeeze the mother’s belly.
6. Once the baby’s head comes out, the arms and shoulders come out immediately. Hold it under the arms as if we were directing it towards the mother’s abdomen. We should not pull the cord or force it. If the amniotic sac was not broken, we will have to prick it very carefully and remove its contents from the baby’s head.
The panting consists of a series of very short breaths to the mouth. It is very useful so that the mother does not get out of control while the baby is coming out of the vagina.
7. When the baby is completely outside, we hold it with both hands so that the head is lower than the body. In this way you can dismiss any liquid through your mouth and nose. We can also introduce a finger in the baby’s mouth, to remove secretions.
8.While the umbilical cord looks thick, bluish and has a pulse, we keep the baby at the same level as the mother. If you do not breathe after a minute, cleanse us and inhale your nose and mouth. If necessary, we apply artificial respiration.
9. We wrap the baby and put it on the breast of the mother.
10. Do not cut the cord while you have a pulse, but when it stops beating, it becomes white and thin. We tie a piece of bandage or cloth around the cord, about 10cm from the navel of the baby, and we make another knot about 3 or 5cem from the previous one. Then we cut the piece of cord that is between the two knots.
11. The placenta is expelled between 5 to 20 minutes after delivery and also produces contractions. If it is delayed we can favor its exit by performing a gentle massage on the uterus and pushing towards the pelvis. Never pull the cord to remove it. It is convenient to keep the placenta for the doctor to observe it.
12. Wash the mother with warm water and give her a hot drink. We shelter her and her baby and let her rest until the doctor arrives.
13. If after delivery the mother has a hemorrhage, we raise her legs, put a compress and give a gentle massage under the navel.

Material needed to attend a delivery.
In the event that the delivery takes place in a house and we have time to prepare, it is advisable that we first procure the elements that we are going to use:
 A clean surface for mom. The most advisable is a bed.
 Have boiled water handy to use when cleaning the baby and the baby.
 Sanitary pads or pieces of soft cloth, previously sterilized.
 Sheets or towels to wrap the baby. Clean towels or pieces of cloth will also be placed under the mother’s buttocks, sticking out so that the newborn comes out on them. It will be necessary to walk them if they get dirty by urine or feces of the mother.
 Scissors sterilized with boiled water or alcohol to cut the umbilical cord.
 A rubber bulb with which the secretions from the nose and mouth of the newborn will be aspirated.
 Two straps to tie the umbilical cord before cutting it.

Although the delivery is unforeseen and we have to assist the mother with

Bites and Stings

They are accidents that occur frequently in some environments and that can cause transient disorders, but also situations of risk. Animal bites can vary in severity. From a slight wound caused by a domestic animal, to deep tears produced by a wild animal.
In general, accidents with dogs and garos do not pose a health risk, unless they are infected with rabies.

In the case of insect bites, these can cause allergies or disorders, such as inflation or pain. Ophidian bites are dangerous because of the poison they inoculate. They must be treated urgently to supply an antidote.

Let’s see the different types of bites and stings and what treatment we should follow.

Bites of mammals.

1. Wounds caused by animals such as dogs or cats should be treated as indicated above.
2.If it is suspected that the animal has rabies or we do not know if it is vaccinated, it is necessary to isolate it to observe its behavior. Usually, he is transferred to an anti-rabies center. If the animal can not be located, it is advisable to apply the rabies vaccine.

Insect bites.
Insect bites such as mosquitoes and gnats produce inflammation, redness and itching. In the case of the mosquito, the bite is not dangerous, but causes an allergic reaction that manifests itself with white spots surrounded by a red halo, which produces a strong pruritus.

Children tend to scratch and small skin lesions that can become infected.

Also the bite of the midge produces a terrible itching and, subsequently, the appearance of boils or abscesses difficult to cure.

The stings of bees and wasps produce swelling, itching and local discomfort (burning and pain). These insects inject irritating and toxic substances into human skin into human tissues.

Fleas and other parasitic insects produce pigs arranged in lines and internal itching.

Other general symptoms are hives and allergic reaction with blockage of the respiratory tract. In very sensitive people, seizures, vomiting and tachycardia may occur.

What do we do?

1. If the bite is mosquito, we apply calamine or alcohol lotion to alleviate the discomfort.
2. If the sting is of insect, wasps and bees, we extract the sting with clean tweezers, without compressing the affected part, or we dig gently with a clean nail. Disinfected with an antiseptic.
We apply ice and compresses with sterile gauze soaked in alcohol, vinegar or ammonia. We can also use an antiallergic ointment or a solution of sodium bicarbonate and water.
3. In the event that the person has been attacked by a swarm of insects, ño ño immersion in cold water, to which we take a spoonful of baking soda for each liter of water.
4. If the bite occurred in the throat, we supply cold water to the affected person or we give him to suck an ice cube.
5.If the person presents a strong allergic reaction, we place it in a lateral safety position and require urgent medical attention.
6. In the event that there is inoculation of poison or abundant bites, we apply compresses of ammonia or bicarbonate water and we provide an antihistamine.
7. When the bite is of vinchuca, we apply ice and call the doctor or transfer the person to a health center.

Other Stings


Spider bite causes pain, swelling, or redness. In the case of poisonous spiders, abdominal cramps, fevers, sweating and nausea may occur.

The scorpion sting produces intense pain and shock.

The tick bite causes redness, pain and swelling.

What do we do?

1. Spider bite: We wash it, disinfect it and apply compresses soaked in ammonia. If the sting is of a poisonous spider, we turn to emergency medical attention.
2. Scorpion Bite: We immobilize the affected member, and we request emergency medical attention.
Ice may also be placed on the affected area to relieve swelling and pain.
3. Tick Bite: We apply oil, petroleum or chloroform.

Bites of snakes (vipers, snakes).

When they bite, the snakes inoculate a poison that, according to the species, acts on the nervous, circulatory and respiratory systems. Poisons produce cardiovascular disorders, difficulty breathing, paralysis and shock.


 In the upper part of the bite, the traces of the fangs remain.
 Around, the skin becomes red.
 The affected area swells or swells, causing pain.
 Head pain and dizziness. Nausea and fever.
 There is a risk of infection.
 Breathing is altered and accelerated, and the pulse weakens.
 The affected person has a state of general prostration.

What do we do?
1.We keep

Foot fungus!

Fungi can be edible or detrimental to health. Businesses that buy in business become a mistake in business. But, sometimes, people pick mushrooms without knowing how to differentiate the good ones from the poisonous ones, or the homemade ones, with the risk of poisoning badly.

Among the most harmful fungi is the Amanita Phalloides. The Amanita Muscaria and the Amanita Pantherina produce sudden symptoms, but they are not mortal child.

Symptoms of muscarinic poisoning (caused by amanita muscaria).
 Presence of intense sweating and salivation.
 Vomiting and diarrhea.
 Slow pulse.
 The affected person has visual disorders, dizziness or cramps. In cases, lung edema may occur.
Incubation has a maximum duration of 4 hours.

Symptoms of phalloidal intoxication (caused by amanita phalloides).
The person feels a general malaise.
 Renal injury occurs.
Incubation within 24 hours or more.
 Presence of jaundice after 3 days.
 In 60% of cases, death occurs.

What do we do?

 We cause vomiting.
 We provide fluids to prevent dehydration.
 We require urgent medical attention.


If, after a fall or blow, a limb or a joint, present an abnormal appearance and can not, possibly it is a fracture or a dislocation. The latter is a rupture of the ligaments and the joint capsule, accompanied by the displacement of the bones from their place. The most common things are chains, knees and wrists. When it comes to a person suffering a dislocation, we should keep in mind some general issues.
 If the wound is bleeding, we cover them with a clean cloth or cloth.
We should not manipulate the bone or the corresponding joint. Only the doctor or the specialist can do it.
While we wait for medical assistance, we must keep the injured person warm and quiet.
 We should not provide food or water, in case emergency surgery is required.

The bone that has been displaced from its joint does not spontaneously return to its place; A maneuver is necessary that must be carried out by a specialist or a person who separates.

What do we do?

In the event that we have to wait for the doctor for a prolonged period, it is convenient to immobilize the joint, using bandages and splints.

Dislocation in the knee.

We fix the articulation in the position in which it is. If it is flexed, we leave it like this, we can also adjust the leg along its entire length, placing it under a board, with pads between it and the knee, and another under the heel.

Shoulder dislocations.

It is not about reducing unless you mar.
1. Place a rolled cloth in the armpit of the injured shoulder.
2.Then, we use an oblique sling to immobilize the arm: the vertex of the triangle is under the elbow, and the other two ends are passed in front of the forearm on the healthy shoulder.

It is convenient to control the pulse: if it does not exist, we must urgently call the doctor.

Danger of fracture.

How has an associated fracture occurred? Bearing in mind that, in dislocations, the ligaments that support the joint are elongated or elongated, when the tendon is stretched very sharply, it can organize a part of the bone in which it is inserted, giving rise to a tearing fracture.


 When there is a dislocation, an obvious deformity is seen in the joint area, produced by the bone outside the position, and by ligaments and circulating tissues, which also has the consequences.
 The person experiences intense pain to the touch.
 Movement inability.

Lead Contamination

Lead is a toxic metal for the nervous system. It is found in nature, but also in glazed clay utensils, lead-based paints and varnishes, tobacco smoke, cans and pipes For water with lead solder. It is one of the most used components in the recycling of bacteria, the repair of radiators, refineries, smelters and the manufacture of fuels, paints and varnishes.

People who work with this metal are very exposed to poisoning either by inhalation or skin. Lead poisoning affects practically all organs, but mainly the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, the kidneys and the blood, producing lead poisoning, a disease whose systems are: colic, paralysis of the extremities and anemia.

Children living in areas contaminated with lead show extremely high concentrations of this metal in the blood, which results in loss of appetite, abdominal pain, headache, constipation, excessive sleep, decreased physical activity, agitation and Amenia. Poor nutrition and protein, iron, calcium and zinc deficiencies favor the absorption of lead, most of which is stored in the bones.

During pregnancy, the fetus can be affected by the mother’s blood lead levels, because the metal crosses the placental barrier. This inhibits their growth before and after birth, and affects intellectual development and auditory acuity.

Symptoms due to intoxication with arsenates, phenolated, fluorinated and polysulphide derivatives.

 Shock and eat.


What do we do?

1. We must not induce vomiting if we do not know the substance that caused the poisoning or if it is suspected that it was produced by corrosive substances. Nor should we make the intoxicated person vomit if he develops seizures.
2. In the event that the substance is not corrosive, we cause vomiting by placing two fingers in the throat or by supplying hot water with salt or oil.
3.If the substance is bleach or ammonia we supply a spoonful of lemon or vinegar in water for vomiting and, after doing so, a glass of milk or 4 tablespoons of raw egg. If the poisoning caused by acid, we give two teaspoons of calcium bicarbonate in a glass of water.

In the case of volatile substances such as kerosene or naphtha, we provide 4 or 5 glasses of water.

Symptoms due to poisoning with insecticides, rodenticides, pesticides and herbicides:

 Blurred vision.
Nausea and vomiting.
 Abdominal pain.
 diarrhea
Comatio state.

What do we do?

1. If the poisoning occurred through the skin, wash it with plenty of water and soap.
2. If the person stops breathing, we apply mouth-to-mouth breathing.
3. If you ingested or inhaled any of these products, provided the universal antidote, which is prepared with burnt bread, a little milk of magnesia and a whipped egg white all dissolved in water.
4. We urgently call the doctor or consult a specialized center by telephone.

Intoxication by inhalation of gases.

Most gases, due to their volatility and ability to expand, are very dangerous for human life. The factories that employ them must be far away from the urban conglomerates, since poor management or technical failure can cause a leak with consequences even for workers and for the nearby population.

During a fire, the carbon monoxide that results from the combustion of different matter causes suffocation. At home, we must be attentive to the correct operation of gas appliances to avoid accidents.


Headache and nausea.
 The skin becomes red and rashes appear.
 The skin turns blue (cyanosis).
 Poisoning by ether, chloroform, sulfur dioxide or chlorine causes irritation of the skin of the mucosa and eyes. Disorders in sight, hearing and speech occur, the person feels weak and lethargic.
 Seizures and convulsive cough appear.
 Carbon monoxide produces suffocation.
 Hydrogen cyanide causes suffocation of tissues, causing death.
Gases such as iperite, phosgene, trilones and arsines produce alterations in the nervous system. They can reach the coma state.

What do we do?

1.Alejarnos the affected person from the place where the accident occurred, taking all the guards to avoid inhaling the gases (using masks or masks, or simply trying not to take air during the rescue).
2. We take the person to a place with oxygen.
3. Call a health center and we advance that it is a gas poisoning, to bring oxygen.
4. We practice mouth-to-mouth breathing in case you have to wait for the doctor and the person has suffered a respiratory arrest.